Reconciliation Toolkit for Non-Indigenous Archives in Canada

Project Introduction

The CCA Archives Advisory Services Working Group (AASWG) has compiled this resource for non-Indigenous archival institutions in Canada working with First Nations, Inuit, and Métis communities and their documentary heritage.

Project Goal

The goal of this resource is to complement the work of the Steering Committee for the TRC Taskforce, which is working on compiling resources to assist Indigenous communities developing their archives.

Together, these resource portals will encourage members of the archival community in Canada to develop the skills and knowledge needed to make connections with their local First Nations, Inuit, and Métis communities.

We hope that this will embolden archives to begin work towards putting the Reconciliation Framework into action within their current archival management practices, answering the question of “where do we even begin with steps towards Reconciliation?”

We also hope that this resource will help information professionals develop new ways of understanding the indigenous records within their holdings and develop respectful and reciprocal relationships with their Indigenous colleagues/communities.

The AAWG would like to thank the Council of Provincial and Territorial Archivists for their project support.


There are many published and online resources and links on this topic. We hope that these resources provide you with a place to start your journey toward reconciliation within your organization.

The AAWG will endeavour to maintain the accuracy of the resources and digital links to the best of our ability. If there is a broken link, an updated resource, an additional resource that you think should be added, or would like your link removed, please contact the AAWG at the email below.

  • Mississaugas of the Credit:  Historical Territory Resource and Land Use (Ontario)
    The intent of this brochure is to outline the general history of the Mississaugas of the New Credit First Nation from the time before contact with Europeans in the early 1600s to the time of settlement in the mid-1800s, onto the present Mississauga of the New Credit Reserve in southern Ontario. The contents of this brochure provide information on the historical way of life of ancestors of the Mississaugas of the New Credit from the 1600s to the 1800s.

  • Researching Indigenous histories in Simcoe County - Simcoe County Archives (Ontario)
    Primarily an introduction to archival records and collections that relate to Indigenous persons and communities in Simcoe County. The focus is primarily resources available at the Simcoe County Archives, but links and direction to relevant resources from other institutions are also included.

  • Guide to the Mi'kmaw Holdings at the Beaton Institute - Beaton Institute, Cape Breton University  (Nova Scotia)
    Created in 2011 and available in both English and Mi'kmaw, the Beaton Institute's online guide is intended to help researchers locate materials within their holdings about the five Mi'kmaw communities of Unama'ki – materials that are both diverse in format and dispersed across many fonds and collections.

  • Mi'kmaq Holdings Resource Guide - Nova Scotia Archives  (Nova Scotia)
    This finding aid provides digital access to the many records about the Mi'kmaq and settler-Indigenous relations in the holdings of the Nova Scotia Archives, the majority of which were produced by Crown and government officials. Notable among their holdings are the Peace and Friendship Treaties, which have been digitized and transcribed on their website.

  • The Mi’kmaq of Nova Scotia Archives Collection, curated by Dr. Trudy Sable - Mi'kmaw Native Friendship Centre (Nova Scotia)
    The MNFC Archives was first established to return Dr. Trudy Sable's interviews and research materials back to the Mi’kmaw communities, individuals, and families involved in her research. The Archives' broader goal is to further public knowledge of Mi’kmaw history and culture through the first-hand experiences of Mi'kmaq and promote the wellbeing of future generations. All of the interviews offered in the collection were approved to be shared by the individual interviewee or surviving family members.

  • Uncommon Bonds: Labrador Inuit and Moravian Missionaries 2023 (Newfoundland and Labrador)
    A three year partnership between the Nunatsiavut Government, Moravian Archives (Bethlehem, Pennsylvania), Moravian Church in Newfoundland and Labrador, Memorial University Libraries and the National Heritage Digitization Strategy focussing on the digitization and digital return of nearly 60,000 pages of archival resources concerning Labrador Inuit. This website is intended to help with the interpretation of these record as well as the broad range of digitized records resulting from contact between Labrador Inuit and Moravian missionaries.

  • Creating a Decolonizing Archives - public lecture by Raymond Frogner (Canada)
    Recording of a presentation by Raymond Frogner on decolonizing archives, for the Dalhousie School of Information Management. 

  • Digital Ethics and Reconciliation in Libraries and Archives - report by Karin St-Onge for University of Victoria Libraries (Canada)
    This report explores ethical issues related to digital libraries and the curation of digital objects that have been co-created with Indigenous communities. This may include faculty research data, archival materials, or digitized materials. Based on extensive consultation with Indigenous researchers, research partners, libraries, and archives, the report contains recommendations and guiding principles for libraries and archives that are working in allyship with Indigenous communities.

  • The Reconciliation Framework: Presentation Q&A - Response to the Report of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission Taskforce (Canada)

    Slides from a 2022 presentation and Q&A by Raegan Swanson, Jennifer Jansen, Donald Johnson, Krista McCracken, and Erica Hernandez-Read from members of the Taskforce.

  • "Imagining: Creating Spaces for Indigenous Ontologies" - journal article by Marisa Elena Duarte & Miranda Belarde-Lewis (Canada)
    The decolonizing methodology of imagining provides one way that knowledge organization practitioners and theorists can acknowledge and discern the possibilities of Indigenous community-based approaches to the development of alternative information structures.

    Duarte, Marisa Elena, and Miranda Belarde-Lewis. “Imagining: Creating Spaces for Indigenous Ontologies.” Cataloging & Classification Quarterly, 53:5-6, 677-702. DOI:

  • Respectful Terminology Platform Project - National Indigenous Knowledge & Language Alliance  (Canada)
    NIKLA is building an open and online platform that will enable a dynamic, multilingual set of terminologies applied to Indigenous Peoples, places, heritage, tradition, knowledge and cultures. These terminologies and vocabularies would replace outdated and inappropriate terminologies used currently in cultural memory sectors such as museums, libraries, archives centers and galleries.

  • Editorial Guide for Indigenous Entity Descriptions in SNAC, draft v.1 - Social Network and Archival Context (Canada)
    A proposed policy written by Lydia Curliss, Diana Marsh, Irene Gates, Katherine Satriano, Jerry Simmons, and Dina Herbert. It might be helpful to archives supporting descriptions of Indigenous entities.

  • Review on Heritage Legislation - First Peoples Cultural Council (Canada)
    Publication includes a selected review of federal and provincial laws in Canada, as well international laws or policies, that impact Indigenous cultural heritage in British Columbia.

  • "Term Circles: Using Linked Data as a Tool to Mitigate Colonial Subject Bias" - article by Tim F. Knight (Canada)
    This paper outlines the difficulty involved in decolonizing metadata from within a colonial institution that represents a colonial worldview. It compares general characteristics of Western and Indigenous worldviews and considers the effect that these perspectives have on the organization of knowledge and information especially in relation to a controlled subject vocabulary. The paper considers examples from library metadata but is applicable to archives metadata as well.

  • Traditional Knowledge Labels - Local Contexts (Canada)
    The Traditional Knowledge Labels initiative from the Local Contexts Hub supports the inclusion of local protocols for access and use to cultural heritage across North America that is digitally circulating outside community contexts. The TK Labels identify and clarify community-specific rules and responsibilities regarding access and future use of traditional knowledge. Includes suggestions for Provenance Labels, Protocol Labels, and Permission Labels.

  • Unarchived - National Film Board of Canada Film (Canada)
    In community archives across British Columbia, local knowledge keepers are hand-fashioning a more inclusive history. Through a collage of personal interviews, archival footage and deeply rooted memories, the past, present and future come together, fighting for a space where everyone is seen and everyone belongs. History is what we all make of it.

  • Archival Decolonist - blog by Nathan Sentance (Australia)
    A blog written by Nathan Sentance, a Wiradjuri man from the Mowgee clan in Darkinjung Country, New South Wales, Australia. His posts cast a critical gaze on the GLAM sectors (galleries, archives, libraries, and museums) with topics ranging from references and bibliographies to the myth of the neutrality of museums, libraries, and archives.

  • Archival Returns: Central Australia and Beyond - book by Linda Barwick, Jennifer Green, and Petronia Vaarzon-Morel (Australia)
    The book provides information on how to decolonize our collections.

    Barwick, Linda, Jennifer Green, and Petronella Vaarzon-Morel. Archival Returns: Central Australia and Beyond. Sydney New South Wales: Sydney University Press, 2020. ISBN: 1743326726.

  • "Identifying & Dismantling White Supremacy in Archives" - poster from Archivists Against History Repeating Itself (United States)
    This poster (found under the tab, "Against White Supremacy") includes a series of calls-to-action for archives and archivists to begin to uncover and dismantle the white privilege embedded in the structure and practices of archives.
  • Sustainable Heritage Network (Canada)
    The Sustainable Heritage Network promotes collaborative stewardship through its offerings of workshops, online tutorials, and web resources dedicated to the lifecycle of digital stewardship. The SHN is a collaborative project that complements the work of Indigenous peoples globally to preserve, share, and manage cultural heritage and knowledge.
  • YFN 001: Yukon First Nations 101 – Yukon University (Yukon)
    Yukon First Nations 101 has been developed to educate students, employees, and the public about the history and culture of First Nations in the Yukon. The course also touches on the cultural values shared among Yukon First Nations today and how to communicate respectfully with First Nation individuals and communities. Available online and on demand.

  • Indigenous Cultural Stewardship – University of Victoria, Cultural Resource Management Program (British Columbia)
    This online course offers participants the opportunity to develop an understanding of the historical relationship between the museum/heritage sector and Indigenous communities, and develop foundational knowledge and skills to support the preservation and stewardship of Indigenous tangible and intangible culture and heritage.

  • Bent Arrow Traditional Healing Society (Alberta)
    This group teaches courses about Indigenous culture and they offer courses on allyship.

  • Decolonization Learning Journey – Impact Organization of Nova Scotia (Nova Scotia)
    This five-part webinar series with Mi'kmaw Elders and Knowledge Sharers was launched in 2020 by the Impact Organization in partnership with Unama'ki College at Cape Breton University. All sessions were recorded and are available on the IONS website. The topics include pre-contact and early history; Indigenous Rights; Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women and Girls; Two-Eyed Seeing; Mi'kmaw Governance; and Reconciliation in Action.

  • The Fundamentals of OCAP® – the First Nations Information Governance Centre (Canada)
    The First Nations principles of OCAP® establish how First Nations’ data and information will be collected, protected, used, or shared. Standing for ownership, control, access and possession, OCAP® is a tool to support strong information governance on the path to First Nations data sovereignty. This training provides an introduction to the principles and practical examples of how people of all nations should interact with First Nations’ data.

  • Indigenous Canada – University of Alberta (Canada)
    Indigenous Canada is a 12-lesson Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) from the Faculty of Native Studies that explores the different histories and contemporary perspectives of Indigenous peoples living in Canada. From an Indigenous perspective, this course explores complex experiences Indigenous peoples face today from a historical and critical perspective highlighting national and local Indigenous-settler relations. Indigenous Canada is for students from faculties outside the Faculty of Native Studies with an interest in acquiring a basic familiarity with Indigenous/non-Indigenous relationships.
  • Indigenous Cultural Competency Training – Native Canadian Centre of Toronto (Canada)
    The Indigenous History, Culture & Current Trends provides a foundation to understanding the unique relationship existing between Indigenous people and Canadians. This training is intended to promote change within the individual, workplace, organization and community. By providing an overview of Indigenous worldviews, enhancing self-awareness through experiential learning and increasing knowledge of historical contexts, attendees will be able to better understand how to establish healthy relationships between Indigenous and non-Indigenous peoples in Canada. The organization is based in Ontario.                                                           
  • Implementing Reparative Description for Indigenous Collections – Society of American Archivists, Native American Archives Section (United States)
    Webinar includes discussion and Q&A on the topic of how to implement reparative description for Indigenous collections.
  • BC History Digitization Program (British Columbia)
    The British Columbia History Digitization Program welcomes applications from private or public institutions and agencies that have the preservation of historical British Columbia materials as part of their mandate. This includes, but is not necessarily limited to, libraries, archives, museums, historical societies and post-secondary institutions. Indigenous applications will be evaluated according to the same criteria in all other aspects of the project applications but will not be required to provide public access to the digitized content. Annual application deadlines apply.

  • Indigenous Research Fund – Friends of BC Archives Grant Program (British Columbia)
    This grant opportunity is open to any individuals (youth, student, adult, Elder) who self-identify as Indigenous (First Nations, Métis, Inuit) and organizations with a mandate to serve the interests of Indigenous peoples. The fund may be used for any/all of the following purposes: travel to the BC Archives (including accommodation/meals), hiring a researcher for work done at the BC Archives, other costs associated with work done at the BC Archives as identified by the applicant. Annual application deadlines apply.
  • Project Assistance: Museums and Indigenous Cultural Centres – BC Arts Council Grant Program (British Columbia)
    This grant opportunity supports the development and creation of artistic or cultural history programming; including exhibitions, dissemination projects, artists’ residencies, exploration of new museological and curatorial practices, community engagement projects and collections management projects. Annual application deadlines apply.

  • Indigenous Reconciliation Initiative – Government of Alberta Grant Program (Alberta)
    Grant funding of up to $100,000 to Indigenous communities to support initiatives to: 1) support Indigenous-led initiatives that provide revitalization of language, culture; 2) support economic growth by increasing security, sustainability, and independence; and 3) strengthen communities to promote healing from past traumas.

  • First Nation Salary Supplement Grants Program – Ontario Library Service (Ontario)
    Support for completing the Public Library Operating Grants, as well as the Public Library Pay Equity (PE) and/or First Nation Salary Supplement (FNSS) applications, through the Ontario Ministry of Tourism, Culture and Sport.
  • Walk with Us – Respectful Travel Guidelines – Indigenous Yukon (Yukon)
    The Yukon is home to 14 distinct First Nations and 8 language groups. These guidelines have been shared by First Nations Knowledge Keepers to teach all people about how to show respect when travelling through the Yukon.

  • Research Guides – Yukon Archives (Yukon) 
    Research guides can help you find relevant records for your search. Finding aids contain detailed information about specific collections. Bibliographies list relevant Yukon Archives materials for specific subjects.
  • First Nations Research Guide – BC Archives (British Columbia)
    This guide is intended to help researchers locate material on British Columbia First Nations at the BC Archives as well as to provide referrals to related print and online resources available.

  • Indigenous Archives & Record Keeping – Archives Association of British Columbia (British Columbia)
    A sub-section of the Archivist's Toolkit, this page presents a wide-ranging selection of resources to support Indigenous organizations, cultural memory-keepers, and Archivists who find themselves working with community records to further the care, access, and preservation of heritage materials within Indigenous communities.

  • Indigenous Cultural Heritage – Heritage BC (British Columbia)
    A compilation of resources and links for heritage professionals that includes examples of policies and reports related to reconciliation.

  • Indigenous Resources – Archives Association of Ontario (Ontario)
    A list of online exhibits, thematic guides and links to archival descriptions and material that relate to Indigenous communities throughout Ontario and Canada created by the AAO.
  • Towards Truth and Reconciliation Resources – Archives Association of Ontario (Ontario)
    Following the release of the findings of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada (TRC), the AAO created this resource page to help archives address the TRC's Calls to Action. The AAO has compiled a list of free and openly available resources for those seeking to critically examine colonialism, the legacy of the residential school system, and Indigenous issues in Canada; the diversification of collections as part of the truth and reconciliation process; access barriers for Indigenous peoples to institutionally held archival holdings; the ethics of collection use and digitization.
  • Joining the Circle: An Indigenous 101 Toolkit – University of Toronto Libraries (Canada)
    This toolkit was developed with the intention to encourage interest in developing Indigenous cultural competency for library staff employed at the University of Toronto Libraries but may be relevant to non-Indigenous archivists developing Indigenous cultural competency.
  • Community Action Toolkits – Reconciliation Canada (Canada)
    The Community Action Toolkits are intended to provide guidelines and ideas on how to start the reconciliation conversation. Community Action Toolkits are available for Individuals, Communities, and Organizations; Municipal Leadership; Youth and Young Adults.
  • Mapping The Way (Yukon)
    Mapping the Way celebrates and raises awareness about Yukon First Nation land claims and self-government. Use this website to explore more about the journey to Yukon First Nation Land Claims, Self-Government Agreements, and read the "Together Today for Our Children Tomorrow" publication which became the document for negotiating the Final Agreement.

  • An Introduction to First Nations Heritage Along the Yukon River – Cirque Consulting + Communications for Yukon Education (Yukon)
    This publication is a manual introducing the Yukon First Nation, part one is called "Who Are the First Nations of Yukon?" and part two is called "A Journey Back in Time: A First Nations Perspective Along the Yukon River". This publication is shared by Yukon Education in support of Yukon Schools.         
  • Changing the Story to Upholding Dignity and Justice: Yukon's Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women, Girls and Two-Spirit+ People Strategy – Yukon Advisory Committee (Yukon)
    The Yukon Advisory Committee on MMMIWG2S+ and the Government of Yukon have created Changing the Story to Upholding Dignity and Justice: Yukon’s MMIWG2S+ Strategy to address violence against Indigenous women, girls and two spirited individuals. Yukon is the first jurisdiction to release a strategy in response to Reclaiming Power and Place: The Final Report of the National Inquiry into Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women and Girls.


  • Together Today for Our Children Tomorrow – Council of Yukon First Nations (Yukon)
    In 1973, Elijah Smith and a delegation of Yukon Chiefs, including Dan Johnson of the Carcross/Tagish First Nation, went to Ottawa to meet with the Prime Minister of Canada. Armed only with their determination, courage and the historic document, Together Today For Our Children Tomorrow, they were able to convince the federal government to begin a negotiation process for a modern-day treaty, the first in Canada.

  • First Peoples' Map – First Peoples' Cultural Council (British Columbia)
    The First Peoples’ Map can be used to view Indigenous language regions, artists and artworks, place names and community landmarks. You can hear the pronunciation of language names, greetings, places and more. All of the 34 languages Indigenous to what is now called British Columbia are represented.

  • Michif Cultural Connections (Alberta)
    This group provides blanket exercises with a local focus. They offer workshops on other areas such as traditional teachings, related to the Métis.

  • “Elders’ Stories” and “Sa’qewe’l kmitkinal / Ancestors Live Here” – Mik'mawey Debert Cultural Centre (Nova Scotia)
    The future Mi'kmawey Debert Cultural Centre (MDCC) will be dedicated to sharing, protecting, and exploring the stories and lives of the earliest Mi'kmaw ancestors and those who have come after them. Their website contains many interviews with Mi'kmaw Elders and Knowledge Keepers as well as place-based stories from around Nova Scotia/Mi'kma'ki.

  • We Were Not the Savages: Collisions between European and Native American Civilizations – book by Daniel Paul (Nova Scotia)
    First published in 1993, Elder Daniel Paul's book is considered a seminal text that helped to uncover and bring into public view the historic and ongoing mistreatment of Mi'kmaq by colonial officials and settlers to Mi'kma'ki.         

    Paul, Daniel M. We Were Not the Savages: Collisions between European and Native American Civilizations. 4th edition. Halifax, Nova Scotia: Fernwood Publishing, 2022. ISBN: 9781773635637 

  • “‘We Fight with Dignity’: The Miawpukek Mi'kmaq Quest for Aboriginal Rights” – book chapter by Harald E. L. Prins (Newfoundland and Labrador)
    Provides context for Miawpukek First Nation's evolving emergence as a strong First Nation's community (Mi'kmaq).
    Prins, Harald E. L. “‘We Fight with Dignity": The Miawpukek Mi'kmaq Quest for Aboriginal Rights.” In Newfoundland Papers of the 28th Algonquian Conference. Ottawa, Ontario: Carleton University, 1997.

    Table of contents:

  • A Long Journey: Residential Schools in Labrador and Newfoundland – book by Andrea Procter (Newfoundland and Labrador)
    Examines the Labrador Inuit experience with residential schools.

    Procter, Andrea. A Long Journey: Residential Schools in Labrador and Newfoundland. St. John's: ISER Books, 2020. ISBN: 9781894725644             

  • A History of Inuit Independence in Labrador – book by Carol Brice-Bennett (Newfoundland and Labrador)
    Evolution of Inuit self-government.

    Brice-Bennett, Carol. Avanimiut A History of Inuit Independence in Labrador. Revised by Lena Onalik and Andrea Proctor. St. John’s: Memorial University Press, 2023. ISBN: 9781990445149 

  • Settlement, Subsistence, and Change Among the Labrador Inuit: The Nunatsiavummiut Experience – book of essays (Newfoundland and Labrador)
    Book on on Inuit settlement and change.

    Natcher, David C., Lawrence Felt, Andrea Procter, editors. Settlement, Subsistence, and Change Among the Labrador Inuit: The Nunatsiavummiut Experience. Winnipeg: University of Manitoba Press, 2020. ISBN: 9780887554254

  • The Innu (the Montagnais-Naskapi) – book by Peter Armitage (Newfoundland and Labrador)
    An authoritative scholarly work on the history of the Innu First Nation.

    Armitage, Peter. The Innu (the Montagnais-Naskapi). New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 1991. ISBN: 9780791003893                                                           

  • “Re-claiming Inuit governance and revitalizing autonomy in NunatuKavut” – article by Amy Hudson (Newfoundland and Labrador)
    This article provides context for the emergence of the NunatuKavut community.

    Hudson, Amy. “Re-claiming Inuit governance and revitalizing autonomy in NunatuKavut.” In The Inuit World. Routledge, 2021. ISBN 9780367225391

  • Reflections from Them Days – book by Nellie Winters (Canada)
    This book gives details of, and reflections on, attending a residential school in Nain.

    Winters, Nellie. Reflections from Them Days. Iqaluit, Nunavut: Inhabit Education Books Inc., 2020. ISBN: 978-1-77450-207-5


  • Stories from the Land: Indigenous Place Names in Canada – Geographical Names Board of Canada (Canada)
    Interactive map of Canada that visually represents place names that originated from Indigenous languages and locations where Indigenous place names have been reinstated. Resource created by Natural Resources Canada and Geographical Names Board of Canada Secretariat.
  • Yukon Native Language Centre (Yukon)

  • First Voices – First Peoples' Cultural Council (British Columbia)
    An online space for Indigenous communities to share and promote language, oral culture and linguistic history. Language teams work with elders to curate and upload audio recordings, dictionaries, songs and stories. This content is shared with community members or the broader public.

  • Theses, Indigenous Resource List – Association for Manitoba Archives (Manitoba)

  • First Nation Language Portal (Ontario)
    The First Nation Language Revitalization Project, also known as the First Nation Languages Portal, has been is an ongoing priority for Ontario Library Service – North since 2015. The Portal provides Indigenous language resources for information professionals working in the Province of Ontario. 

  • Native Land Interactive Language Map of the World (Canada)
    Created by the Native Land Digital, a Canadian not-for-profit organization incorporated in December 2018. This interactive map makes it easy to search up all the different Indigenous languages around the world. You may toggle the map to view and search by Territories, Languages, and Treaties.                                                       
  • Original Voices – CBC News (Canada)
    Archivists can access Indigenous language information through the Original Voices tool, launched as a celebration of the International Year of Indigenous Languages, a United Nations observance to raise awareness of the consequences of the endangerment of Indigenous languages across the world in 2019. There are over 80 Indigenous languages across the country and while Original Voices currently features over 30 of them - this list will grow.
  • Resources – Center for Oral History and Digital Storytelling, Concordia University (Canada)
    Compiled by COHDS from Concordia University, their resources are a great start to understanding oral history and storytelling. Take a look into their training materials, ethics, other resources, and see some of their projects for inspiration.        
  • History – Council of Yukon First Nation (Yukon)
    Explore this webpage written by the Council of Yukon First Nation (CYFN) to learn more about indigenous history in the Yukon. Click into each sub-page to explore more information on Land Claims, Natural History, and Yukon First Nation Languages. CYFN is also a great resource to connect with First Nation Self-Governments in the Yukon.   
  • Policy Paper: Recognizing and Including Indigenous Cultural Heritage in B.C. – First Peoples' Cultural Council (British Columbia)
    The objective of this policy paper is to present a compelling and informed position for supporting an Indigenous-led organization that can address gaps in cultural heritage legislation and policy, and support heritage related initiatives in Indigenous communities to achieve measurable goals. Intended audiences for the paper include provincial and federal governments, heritage professionals and organizations, Knowledge Keepers and Indigenous leaders, Indigenous communities and organizations, non-government organizations, and academics and academic institutions.
  • Cultural Resource Management – Saskatchewan Indigenous Cultural Centre (Saskatchewan)
  • Ontario Native Education Counselling Association (Ontario)
    The Ontario Native Education Counselling Association (ONECA) is founded upon principles that recognize that, although a variety of counselling and educational tools and programs exist in Ontario, the development of Native communities requires tools and programs designed specifically to improving Native Counselling and Education services. It develops and distributes resources and can coordinate workshops and training. It also provides a PDF of First Nation Community Profiles on its website.  
  • Confederacy of Mainland Mi'kmaq (Nova Scotia)
    The Confederacy of Mainland Mi'kmaq (CMM) is a Tribal Council that promotes and assists Mi’kmaw communities toward self-determination and enhancement of community. The CMM's governing body is made up of the Chiefs of the eight Mi'kmaw communities on mainland Nova Scotia, to which they deliver a variety of community programs and advisory services.           
  • Mi'kmaq History Month (Nova Scotia)
    Mi'kmaq History Month (MHM), which occurs every October, promotes awareness and knowledge of Mi'kmaw culture, history, and heritage. The organization committee also provides funding for MHM activities and events held by Mi'kmaw communities and organizations.
  • Mi’kmaw Kina’matnewey / Mi'kmaq Education Authority (Nova Scotia)
    MK advocates for and supports the educational interests of Mi'kmaq within Nova Scotia and are leaders in protecting, preserving, and revitalizing the Mi’kmaw language. Their website contains many resources for students, educators, and families seeking to learn more about Mi'kmaw culture and history.
  • Treaty Education (Nova Scotia)
    Treaty Education aims to build awareness and understanding of the Mi'kmaq, Mi'kmaq-settler relations, and the Peace and Friendship Treaties. In addition to the many videos and resources available on their website, their Mi’kmaq Speakers’ Bureau helps organizations connect with trained educators who can speak about Mi’kmaq history and culture; Treaties and the treaty relationship; and reconciliation.
  • “Partners in the present to safeguard the past: Building cooperative relations between the Innu and archaeologists regarding archaeological research in Innu territory” – article by Peter Armitage and Daniel Ashini (Newfoundland & Labrador)
    An article in Études/Inuit/Studies on relationship-building between Innu and archeologists.

    Armitage, Peter, and Daniel Ashini “Partners in the present to safeguard the past: Building cooperative relations between the Innu and archaeologists regarding archaeological research in Innu territory”. Études/Inuit/ Studies 22, no. 2 (1998): 31-40.

  • Guidelines for Community Engagement with NunatuKavut – NunatuKavut Community Council Research Advisory Committee (Newfoundland & Labrador)
    NunatuKavut research protocols.
  • Protocols 101: "How to Start the Conversation" and "How to Prepare Your Institution" – The Sustainable Heritage Network (Canada)
    Resource includes a lesson plan and two videos that introduce the "Protocols of Native American Archival Materials", including guidance on how to begin talking about the protocols in non-Tribal/Indigenous institutions.
  • Community Action Toolkits – Reconciliation Canada (Canada)
    The Community Action Toolkits are intended to provide guidelines and ideas on how to start the reconciliation conversation. Community Action Toolkits are available for Individuals, Communities, and Organizations; Municipal Leadership; Youth and Young Adults.
  • “10 Recommendations for Supporting Indigenous Cultural Heritage” – First Peoples' Cultural Council (Canada)
    Reference guide that includes recommendations for supporting Indigenous cultural heritage.     
  • Association of Tribal Archives, Libraries, and Museums (Canada)
    ATALM is an international non-profit organization that maintains a network of support for indigenous programs, provides culturally relevant programming and services, encourages collaboration among tribal and non-tribal cultural institutions, and articulates contemporary issues related to developing and sustaining the cultural sovereignty of Native Nations. US based resource but good.
  • Indigenous Protocols for the Visual Arts (Canada)
    The materials on this website were designed to provide practical guidelines for respectful engagement with Indigenous Peoples. It is part of an ongoing initiative to strengthen respect for First Nations, Inuit, and Métis visual art and artists, and legal and moral rights in the territory now known as Canada.
  • Legacy of Hope Foundation (Canada)
    Legacy of Hope Foundation can provide workshops and training that fosters Reconciliation initiatives in your community, department, or organization by teaching about intergenerational impacts of the RSS and the SS. They teach people how to be an ally and the steps needed to address racism and work for change.
  • Relationship Building: A Guided Workbook – BC Museums Association (Canada)
    This workbook was created to help address the self-reflection that non-Indigenous institutions can be doing to help alleviate some concerns and to lay a foundation for better relationships to be created when the opportunity arises. Organizations may be rushing to create relationships without learning, questioning, and reflecting on their own practices and histories, therefore expecting Indigenous communities to reflect for them, creating inequality in labor, both physical and emotional. 
  • "Working Effectively with Indigenous Peoples" blog and "free eBooks" sectionIndigenous Corporate Training Inc (Canada)  
  • Ta’n Weji-sqalia’tiek: Mi’kmaw Place Names Digital Atlas (Nova Scotia)
    An interactive map containing more than 700 translated and transliterated Mi'kmaw place names in Nova Scotia using the Smith/Francis orthography. Each point on the map includes a recording of the Mi'kmaw pronunciation, English translation of the name's meaning, and source information. 

  • The Elements of Indigenous Style: A Guide for Writing By and About Indigenous Peoples – book by Gregory Younging (Canada)
    A must-read for anyone who intends to write about Indigenous People (including archival descriptions!). Younging provides advice on terminology to use and avoid, culturally appropriate and collaborative publishing practices, and guidance on how and when to consult with Elders and Knowledge Keepers.

    Younging, Gregory. The Elements of Indigenous Style: A Guide for Writing By and About Indigenous Peoples. Brush Education Inc., 2018. ISBN: 9781550597165

  • First Nations Metis and Inuit Indigenous Ontology (Canada)         
  • Indigenous Subject Headings – Greater Victoria Public Library (Canada)            

How to contact us

You can reach members of the AASWG via email: aaswg[at]

Alternatively, you can reach out to the Archives Advisors and designated individuals that contributed this project. Their contact information can be found on their association’s or council’s website: